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borneo rainforest deforestation

Borneo is the third largest island in the world. That equates to more than 18,000 square miles of rainforest. Borneo, especially Kalimantan, has also been heavily affect by peat fires set for land-clearing purposes. This indicates that respondents in the regions with lowest current forest cover and annual forest loss (W. Kalimantan and Sabah), and with a longer history of deforestation compared to other parts of Borneo , , tended to see small-scale clearing as beneficial, and were least opposed to large-scale deforestation. In 1973, Borneo was covered with 75.7% of forest; in 2010 this percentage was down to 52.8%. Deforestation began in earnest during the mid-twentieth century with the establishment of rubber plantations, though these had a limited impact. Unable to support themselves with subsistence agriculture, many of these people went to work for logging companies. The name Borneo itself is a Western reference first used by the Dutch during their colonial rule of the island. With a current deforestation rate of 1.3 million hectares per year, only peat and montane forests would survive in the coming years,” the WWF warns. The causes of deforestation in Borneo are not complex; but the solutions are. However the first signs of deforestation clearly appeared about 1,500 years ago. http://forestwatchers.net/pybossa/app/deforestedareas/, Get involved and support reforestation initiatives, Buy only FSC certified tropical timber: https://us.fsc.org/. Oil palm cultivation has increased from 186,744 hectares in Sabah and Sarawak in 1984 to 1,673,721 hectares at the close of 2003. The hot spots are located in the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest and Gran Chaco, Borneo, the Cerrado, Choco-Darien, the Congo Basin, East Africa, Eastern Australia, Greater Mekong, New Guinea, … Borneo Rainforest Adventure Borneo from £3,099 per person. - The development of oil palm plantations across Indonesia, including those certified as sustainable, has had mixed outcomes for the social and ecological well-being of nearby communities, a new study shows.- In Sumatra, where oil palm has been cultivated for longer than on other islands and where rural residents have largely switched to a market-based economy, there’s a marginal net positive impact from the presence of plantations.- In Indonesian Borneo, however, where villagers tend to rely on subsistence-based livelihoods, socioecological conditions have worsened in the wake of plantation certification.- The study authors say their findings flag the risk of “unintended indirect impacts of pushing large-scale industrial oil palm into frontier forest areas where local communities still rely heavily on environmental services.”. Borneo's rainforests went to industrialized countries like Japan and the United States in the form of garden furniture, paper pulp and chopsticks. Historically, deforestation in Borneo was minimal due to infertile soils, an unfavourable climate, and the presence of disease. What is the highest deforestation rate during the period 1973-2010 [2], What is the highest proportion of intact forest in Borneo (or primary forest) in 2010 [2]. Much of the remaining forests will be logged and converted under the present forest-use designations. Deforestation: University of Maryland, Google, USGS and NASA analysis of satellite imagery; Global Forest Watch Popi arrived at the Center for Orangutan Protection (COP) when she was a few weeks old. “Only half of Borneo’s forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. It doesn’t have to, ‘We are losing’: Q&A with The Orangutan Project’s Leif Cocks on saving the great ape, Is a Sunda clouded leopard a leopard? In recent years however, the system has been breaking down due to land-use change. This recognition needs to be followed by the political will to make tough decisions, including challenging business-as-usual interests that work to destroy forests, accounting for the true costs of environmental degradation, and creating financial incentives for local people to shift behavior. Borneo's forests are some of the most biodiverse on the planet, home to more than 230 species of mammals (44 of which are endemic), 420 resident birds (37 endemic), 100 amphibians, 394 fish (19 endemic), and 15,000 plants (6,000 endemic). In 2010, 65,000 km2 (twice the size of Belgium) was planted with oil palm and 10,537 km2 under industrial tree plantations (mostly rubber trees or acacias for the pulp and paper industry). Indonesian Borneo is known as Kalimantan, while Malaysian Borneo is known as East Malaysia. Recent analysis also shows that in Kalimantan, the deforestation rates are lower in commercial forest exploited for timber than in protected forests, showing the possible value of timber exploitation for forest conservation when sustainable practices were implemented seriously [6]. - Once covered in vast tropical forests, East Kalimantan, in the Indonesian half of Borneo Island, is today the most intensively mined province in Indonesia.- Surface mining for coal has left behind vast expanses of barren land across the province.- Under Indonesian law, mining companies are responsible for rehabilitating their mining concessions.- In this analysis, based on field work in mining sites in East Kalimantan, restoration ecologists David Woodbury (School of the Environment, The Forest School, Yale University ) and Arbainsyah (Environmental Leadership & Training Initiative, Tropenbos Indonesia) argue the rehabilitation of coal mines is far more difficult, and likely far less effective, than environmentalists, mining companies and policy makers might hope. Related articles The World Bank Group: Transmigration in Indonesia. During that period, nearly 40% of the park's lowland forest was cleared. Why oil palm is replacing tropical rainforests | Social impact of oil palm in Borneo | Greening the world with palm oil. An analysis by Indonesia’s space agency shows an area of forest twice the size of London was cleared in the past decade in the watershed area of the Barito River in South Kalimantan province. The deforestation-monitoring platform Borneo Atlas, developed by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), shows that 6,406 hectares (15,830 acres) of forests inside AHL’s concession disappeared within the period of 2016-2018. 42% of intact forests fall under “production forests” and will be logged as the area of forest that falls under exploitation is greater than protected forests. Politically, the island is divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. For the villagers of Kampung Buayan, it used to be easy to forget how close the city of Kota Kinabalu is. There are seven distinct ecoregions in Borneo. Where: Between three countries - Brunei, Malaysia and Indonesia (Kalimantan) This map shows the location of the Borneo Rainforest, located on the equator. Oil palm is the most productive oil seed in the world. Deforestation in Borneo: the extent of the problem. JAKARTA — The Indonesian government has denied that deforestation for oil palm plantations and coal mines contributed to a recent deadly flood in southern Borneo. Our research focuses on identifying the best tree species for replanting and optimal … Logging in Borneo in the 1980s and 1990s was some of the most intensive the world has ever seen, with 60-240 cubic meters of wood being harvested per hectare versus 23 cubic meters per hectare in the Amazon. Some scientists fear that fires and climate change could be a positive feedback loop that only worsens conditions, producing ever drier climate, more frequent fires, and higher carbon emissions. There is more money in the Borneo rainforest’s biodiversity than in the deforestation of it. Up to 420 million acres of forest could be lost between 2010 and 2030 in these "deforestation fronts" if current trends continue. Forests not only provide shade, but create their own rainfall, essentially recycling the freshwater in the soil and vegetation. Indonesia's Kutai National Park was established in 1936 as a 306,000 hectare preserve, but suffered from reductions in extent, large-scale illegal logging, and encroachment. In Borneo, only half of the forest cover … Forest Natural preservation. The fires release massive amounts of carbon dioxide, especially when Borneo's peat forests burn. Moreover, we work to develop sustainable livelihoods for the local communities who are often attracted to the fast money related to the illegal industries. and fires. Borneo now suffers from one of the highest deforestation rates in the world as forests are unsustainably logged for timber or cleared to make way for farms and plantations. Large plantations owners are aided by subsidies that include crude processing facilities and roads. Deforestation began in earnest during the mid-twentieth century with the establishment of rubber plantations, though these had a … Replanting trees prevents soil erosion, restores wildlife habitats and reduces fire risks; it engages local communities in conservation; and it contributes to the global fight to stop climate change. Biotic factors (alive things) • Animals – they are affected by the loss of their habitat, the loss of food supply in … A fundamental problem is that "development" in Borneo is driven by extractive industries. These are estimated to cover around 1 million hectares in Borneo, a small fraction of their original extent due to conversion for agriculture. Fires during the el Niño on 1997-1998 captured the world's attention. Human Population: 17.7 million, of which 17% or 2.2 million is indigenous Dayak Borneo's rainforests have been ravaged by fires, logging and palm oil plantations in recent decades. The analysis identifies 24 “deforestation fronts” worldwide where a total of 43 million hectares of forest was destroyed in the period from 2004 until 2017. Other causes for deforestation are also linked to human development and include mining (for coal or for gold and other minerals), infrastructure development (roads, human settlements, etc.) Related articles Candid Animal Cam heads to Southeast Asia (04 Aug 2020 06:37:32 +0000) Conservation Biology, pp.249-254 Volume 18, No1, February 2004, Global Forest Watch, Global Forest Watch Indonesia, World Resources Institute: The State of the Forest, Indonesia, 2002, Government of Sabah: https://www.sabah.gov.mv, Government of Sarawak: https://www.sarawak.gov.mv, Holmes, D.A. These range from commodity sourcing policies to recognizing Indigenous and local communities’ land rights. That being said, there are reasons to suspect that 2020’s forest loss will again be substantial. Langner and Siegert (2005) estimated that just under 30 million hectares of lowland Dipterocarp forest remained in Borneo in 2002. Oil palm cultivation has expanded in Indonesia from 600,000 hectares in 1985 to more than 8.6 million hectares by 2015, according to U.N. FAOSTAT. A sharp increase in the incidence of fires in an ecosystem that is accustomed to fire has exacerbated drought stress and forest die-off. People arrived in Borneo around 40,000 years ago and for a long time their impact on the Bornean forests [2] was very limited. ‘We are losing’: Q&A with The Orangutan Project’s Leif Cocks on saving the great ape (19 Aug 2020 06:01:19 +0000) Industrial logging rose in the 1970s as Malaysia depleted its peninsular forests, and former Indonesian strongman Suharto distributed large tracts of forest to cement political relationships with army generals. Peat swamp forests are the dominant form of remaining lowland forest in Borneo today. With swampy coastal areas fringed with mangrove forests and a mountainous interior, much of the terrain was virtually impassable and unexplored. We have a long-term project studying reforestation in some of the most damaged rainforests of Borneo. Health In Harmony’s mission and that of their Indonesian partner, Alam Sehat Lestari (ASRI), is a difficult one—stopping forest loss in western Borneo, a region with one of the world’s highest deforestation rates. A hundred kilograms of oil seeds typically produce 20 kilograms of oil, while a single hectare of oil palm may yield 5,000 kilograms of crude oil, or nearly 6,000 liters of crude oil that can be used in biodiesel production. Borneo: the third largest island in the world, one-third of which is home to 220,000 km 2 of diverse and beautiful rainforest. In 10 years, from the beginning of 2010 to the end of 2019, Indonesia lost almost 5.9 million hectares of humid primary forest (Global Forest Watch). Fires in 1997-1998 burned 92% of the park's area. Area: The current area of Borneo is 743,330 km2. … Deforestation started to accelerate with industrialization and between 1980 - 2000, more round wood was harvested from Borneo than from Africa and Amazon combined [2]. Fire is also a factor. Several distinct ecosystems are found across Borneo. The range is not volcanic — the whole of Borneo has only a single extinct volcano — but does feature the highest mountain in Southeast Asia: Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, which reaches 4,095 meters (13,435 feet). It doesn’t have to (19 Oct 2020 04:33:12 +0000) Conservation areas have had mixed success in Borneo. In prehistoric times it was connected to the Asian mainland due to geological and climate changes. Up to 90 percent of deforestation in Borneo is carried out illegally. (1997) estimate that Borneo was once covered with by 6,688,200 hectares of heath forests. Surveys have found more than 700 species of trees in a 10 hectare plot — a number equal to the total number of trees in Canada and the United States combined. It is said that they are around 130 million years old, the oldest on the planet. As in many tropical places, deforestation threatens Borneo due to logging, land-clearing and conversion activities. As planetary health professionals, we seek solutions that … These giant trees, often exceeding 45 meters in height, are the most valuable source of timber in Borneo and have been heavily logged since the 1970s. The relationship has lasted for as long as humans have inhabited Borneo and is ingrained in the cultures of people ranging from the tribes of the forested interior to coastal traders. Designated for permanent clearance and conversion, usually for agricultural purposes, Malaysia (states of Sabah and Sarawak) (26.7%), Indonesia (Kalimantan - West, Central, South, and East) (72.6%), Between 1985 and 2001, Kalimantan's protected lowland forests declined by about 56%. A further 16% of these intact forests will be converted. They also serve to significantly buffer flooding, to maintain water quality and to sustain local communities and indigenous people. Being realistic about coal mine rehabilitation in Indonesia: An ecological perspective (23 Dec 2020 07:36:27 +0000) Without access to electricity, life in a small indigenous community tucked away deep in Borneo’s rainforest could feel far removed from the bustling markets and gleaming hotels in the capital of Malaysia’s Sabah state, just 20 kilometres away as the crow flies. ... Madagascar and Borneo. ... Madagascar and Borneo. However the first signs of deforestation clearly appeared about 1,500 years ago. It’s a source of huge profits for multinational corporations, while at the same time destroying the livelihoods of smallholders. Fires have continued to burn on an increasingly frequent basis since then, usually set to clear land for oil palm plantations. Deforestation in Borneo was historically low due to infertile soils (relative to surrounding islands), unfavorable climate, and the presence of disease. These burned some 9.7 million hectares and caused estimated economic damage of more than 9 billion dollars. However, in the past 50 years, more than 50% of the original rainforest has been lost. Palm oil is derived from the plant's fruit, which grow in clusters that may weigh 40-50 kilograms. The analysis identifies 24 “deforestation fronts” worldwide where a total of 43 million hectares of forest was destroyed in the period from 2004 until 2017. In Kalimantan, oil palm has expanded even faster: from 13,140 hectares in 1984 to nearly one million hectares at the end of 2003. The prevalence of Dipterocarps gives Borneo's forests an unusual dynamic that is tightly linked with the ocean-atmosphere phenomenon called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (also known as ENSO or "El Niño"). This is four times the size of Switzerland! Between 2000 and 2017, 6.04 million hectares of old-growth forest were lost in Borneo, a decline of 14%. A few links with interesting facts and views about tropical deforestation. The increase in these activities is being matched by a growth in illegal wildlife trade, as cleared forests provide easy access to more remote areas. ‘Certified’ palm oil linked to worse social, ecological outcomes for Indonesian villagers (30 Nov 2020 18:59:37 +0000) World, Bank Discussion Paper. “Only half of Borneo’s forest cover remains today, down from 75 per cent in the mid-1980s. More on logging. Timelapse of Borneo deforestation 2000-2017. Montane forests are generally found at an elevation from 900 meters to 3300 meters in Borneo. Prices & Availability ... their natural habitat is under increasing threat from deforestation. - 2020 was supposed to be a make-or-break year for tropical forests. Its forests were leveled at a rate unparalleled in human history. Save the Orangutan therefore supports patrolling of the protected rainforest areas. Heath forests are also less biodiverse the other tropical plant communities. It requires low technology and is usually done on a rotation (or shifting) basis. Today this area is so diminished the World Bank estimates that almost no heath forests will remain in Borneo by 2010. The impact extends well beyond Borneo with annual fires driving widespread pollution that can spread as far as Australia, China, and India. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international not for-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the world’s forests. 32 No 7, Nov. 2003, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2003, The World Bank: Indonesia: Environment and Natural Resource Management in a Time of Transition, February 2001, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre: https://www.wcmc.org accessed February 2, 2007, WWF: Borneo's Lost World: Newly Discovered Species on Borneo; written by Pio D. and D'Cruz R. (ed) for WWF, April 2005. But that has changed since the early 1980s with increased degradation of forests and peatlands, which has created conditions that exacerbate fire risk. “Forest destruction was already bad enough for the region to be declared a global deforestation front, then the 2019-20 bushfires burned about 12.6 million hectares in … Secondary threats include large-scale industrial projects (roads and hydroelectric projects), hunting, and the climate of corruption which permeates virtually all levels of government in Kalimantan. Today, over half of Borneo’s forests have disappeared, and the remainder are under threat. In terms of plant and animal species, the Bornean rainforests are the richest terrestrial ecosystem in the world. The mass blooming and subsequent fruiting — which has been known to synchronize over an area of 150 million hectares (370 million acres) and involve 1870 species — is a boon to seed predators, including wild boar, the keystone seed predator in the ecosystem. Timelapse of Borneo deforestation 2000-2017. [3]. Candid Animal Cam heads to Southeast Asia, Watershed and other "functional" forests. MacKinnon et al. As in many tropical areas around the world, Borneo’s rainforests are being cut and degraded for timber, palm oil, pulp, rubber and minerals. Today most of these habitats have been converted to other types of land-uses. Agro-industrial crops include rubber and other industrial tree plantations (about 10 % of the entire Borneo island). Logging expanded significantly in the 1980s, with logging roads providing access to remote lands for settlers and developers. EYES ON THE FOREST BORNEO DEFORESTATION Asia Pulp & Paper and UPDATE APRIL Groups continued in 2018 to source wood ... rainforest to develop wood fiber plantations at least through 2017.1 Government reports record wood ... indicating deforestation during 2001–2012 and 2013–2017, and remaining natural forest cover. 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