CEOE English: English Literature in the 20th Century - Chapter Summary.  Woolf was an influential feminist, and a major stylistic innovator associated with the stream-of-consciousness technique in novels like Mrs Dalloway (1925) and To the Lighthouse (1927).  The continental art movements of Impressionism, and later Cubism, were also important inspirations for modernist writers. If you would like to undertake some secondary reading, I'd suggest starting here, with a guide to The Nineteenth-Century Novel, 1820-1880. Read 92 111 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Again in the 1950s, the absurdist play Waiting for Godot (1955) (originally En attendant Godot, 1952), by Irish writer Samuel Beckett profoundly affected British drama. View Academics in 20th century English novel on Academia.edu. Interesting Literature is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by linking to Amazon.co.uk. It combines fantasy, philosophy, and science fiction in an exploration of the nature of good and evil and their relationship with existence. Enter your email address to subscribe to this site and receive notifications of new posts by email. His works include The Cement Garden (1978) and Enduring Love (1997), which was made into a film. Many of their poems were written in protest against the established social order and, particularly, the threat of nuclear war. Why? English novelist and screenwriter Ian McEwan (born 1948) is another of contemporary Britain's most highly regarded writers. The novels of the nineteenth century were written at a time when there was confidence and stability in British society. Amongst the novelists, after Joseph Conrad, other important early modernists include Dorothy Richardson (1873–1957), whose novel Pointed Roof (1915), is one of the earliest example of the stream of consciousness technique, and D. H. Lawrence (1885–1930), who published The Rainbow in 1915, though it was immediately seized by the police. It’s also set over the course of just one day, 16 June 1904, as we follow the ad man, Leopold Bloom, as he wanders around the city of Dublin. Tolkien. Modernism is a major literary movement of the first part of the twentieth-century. The Modern Literary Novel. Wells, Galsworthy, Arnold Be… 15 November 2012. 20th century English name generator . Christie's novels include Murder on the Orient Express, Death on the Nile and And Then There Were None. “20th Century English Novel MCQs” is the set of frequently asked Multiple Choice questions and these MCQs are asked in different test in the past in different test. The English novel took birth in the 16 th and 17 th centuries and reached a great height in the Age of Pope and Dr Johnson. Below, we introduce ten classic twentieth-century novels which anyone aiming to be well-read in twentieth-century fiction should aim to read. 20th Century English Novel_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区 169人阅读|7次下载. https://www.thoughtco.com/19th-century-novels-reading-list-737909 Banville is also an adapter of dramas, a screenwriter, and a writer of detective novels under the pseudonym Benjamin Black. Though W. H. Auden's (1907–1973) career began in the 1930s and 1940s he published several volumes in the 1950s and 1960s. The American exponent of Naturalism Theodore Dreiser's (1871–1945) Sister Carrie was also published in 1900. In Stan Smith. STUDY. The Novel of the City The 20th century is distinguished as the century of urbanism. Both Pinter and Stoppard continued to have new plays produced into the 1990s. Soyinka won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1986, as did South African novelist Nadine Gordimer in 1995. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. In 1947 Malcolm Lowry published Under the Volcano, while George Orwell's dystopia of totalitarianism, 1984, was published in 1949. One of Penguin Books' most successful publications in the 1970s was Richard Adams's heroic fantasy Watership Down (1972). Indeed, from 1950 on a significant number of major writers came from countries that had over the centuries been settled by the British, other than America which had been producing significant writers from at least the Victorian period. Narrated by an unnamed black man living in squalid conditions in a town in the South, Invisible Man was proclaimed a ‘masterpiece’ by Anthony Burgess and continues to be read as a classic, and studied on college courses. Among British writers in the 1940s and 1950s were novelist Graham Greene whose works span the 1930s to the 1980s and poet Dylan Thomas, while Evelyn Waugh, and W. H. Auden continued publishing significant work. SET 1: 20th Century English Novel MCQs – FAQ in Jobs Test Like the author of the novel, Paul Morel believes that the twentieth century British Society made his life unreal and empty through a pernicious class system. The Jewel in the Crown (Paul Scott, 1966) 80. Recommended edition: The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, The Return of the King. George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four. Librivox Free Audiobook. William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury (1929) is another significant modernist novel, that uses the stream of consciousness technique. In fact, I’m going to reread it right now. I had the good fortune of meeting him when he came to Stanford University. Mainstream novelists such Doris Lessing and Margaret Atwood also wrote works in this genre, while Scottish novelist Ian M. Banks has also achieved a reputation as both a writer of traditional and science fiction novels. Start studying Twentieth Century Novelists.  Another immigrant, Polish-born modernist novelist Joseph Conrad (1857–1924) published his first important work, Heart of Darkness, in 1899 and Lord Jim in 1900. Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid’s Tale. The fifty books on this list were all published more than a hundred years ago, and yet remain fresh and exhilarating reads. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. From Nigeria a number of writers have achieved an international reputation for works in English, including novelist Chinua Achebe, who published Things Fall Apart in 1958, as well as playwright Wole Soyinka and novelist Buchi Emecheta. All but Gregorian were published by Random House or an affiliate.  Thomas enlisted in 1915 and is one of the First World War poets along with Wilfred Owen (1893–1918), Rupert Brooke (1887–1915), Isaac Rosenberg (1890–1917), Edmund Blunden (1896–1974) and Siegfried Sassoon (1886–1967).  Yeats is generally considered[by whom?] Anthony Burgess is especially remembered for his dystopian novel A Clockwork Orange (1962), set in the not-too-distant future, which was made into a film by Stanley Kubrick in 1971. It is both a continuation of the experimentation championed by writers of the modernist period (relying heavily, for example, on fragmentation, paradox, questionable narrators, etc.) Lewis and J.R.R. The Kailyard school of Scottish writers, notably J. M. Barrie (1869–1937), creator of Peter Pan (1904), presented an idealised version of society and brought of fantasy and folklore back into fashion. . Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. I. Caserio, Robert L., 1944– II. Although an overtly psychological approach is found among the earliest English novels, such as Samuel Richardson’s Pamela (1740), which is told from the heroine’s point of view, and Laurence Sterne’s introspective first-person narrative Tristram Shandy (1759–67), the psychological novel reached its full potential only in the 20th century. Perhaps the best known of these is James Joyce's "Dubliners," a series of short stories that all take place in various locales in Dublin. The Edwardian novelists considered it to be a sin to escape into a world of romanceand psychology when the gaping wounds of social life were pleading for reform and healthy treatment. The novel was greatly influenced by social and scientific changes. Title. 82.  Joe Orton's dramatic debut in 1963 was the radio play The Ruffian on the Stair, which was broadcast on 31 August 1964. There’s a temptation, of course, to mutter the names Dickens, Tolstoy, and Twain and assume you’ve covered the 19th century—but a deeper dive proves the novel was alive and well in the 1800s. to members of this artistic movement. Before he decided upon The Great Gatsby as his title, Fitzgerald toyed with calling his novel ‘Under the Red, White and Blue’, ‘Among the Ash-Heaps and Millionaires’, and, worst of all, ‘The High-Bouncing Lover’. Charles Ryder. Leading poets associated with this movement include J. H. Prynne, Eric Mottram, Tom Raworth, Denise Riley and Lee Harwood. This website celebrates the world-wide literary novel since approximately the beginning of the twentieth century, arranged by nationality. Martin Amis, an important contemporary novelist, carried this defamiliarisation into fiction. Another successful novel of the same era was John Fowles' The French Lieutenant's Woman (1969), with a narrator who freely admits the fictive nature of his story, and its famous alternative endings. Recommended edition: The Great Gatsby (Wisehouse Classics Edition). ), and newspeak (thoughtcrime, sexcrime, doubleplusgood, etc. Let’s begin with Set 1. McEwan was awarded the Jerusalem Prize in 2011.  His poetry has won international recognition and has received many prizes in Europe and the United States.. The Edwardian novel was essentially a novel of ideas including in its scope, a free discussion of all kinds of ideas; scientific, social, political industrial and so forth. Arnold Wesker and Nell Dunn also brought social concerns to the stage. Martin Amis (born 1949) is one of the most prominent of contemporary British novelists. The Importance of the 20th Century Literature The dawning of a new century marked a distinct change in the style and subjects of literature. Thank you This item will ship to United States, but the seller has not specified shipping options. Other novelists writing in the 1950s and later were: Anthony Powell whose twelve-volume cycle of novels A Dance to the Music of Time, is a comic examination of movements and manners, power and passivity in English political, cultural and military life in the mid-20th century; comic novelist Kingsley Amis is best known for his academic satire Lucky Jim (1954); Nobel Prize laureate William Golding's allegorical novel Lord of the Flies 1954, explores how culture created by man fails, using as an example a group of British schoolboys marooned on a deserted island who try to govern themselves, but with disastrous results. (1886–1961). The Patrick Melrose Novels (Edward St Aubyn, 1992-2012) 81. The twentieth century gave us literary modernism, postmodernism, magical realism, dystopian fiction, and new perspectives on race, empire, gender, and politics. 71. I have always been unable to see why Gatsby should be a great book. In terms of the Euro-American tradition, the main periods are captured in the bipartite division, Modernist literature and Postmodern literature, flowering from roughly 1900 to 1940 and 1960 to 1990 respectively, divided, as a rule of thumb, by World War II. Pat Barker (born 1943) has won many awards for her fiction. In 1998 McEwan won the Man Booker Prize with Amsterdam. Another admired Canadian novelist and poet is Michael Ondaatje, who was born in Sri Lanka. In 1908, Kenneth Grahame (1859–1932) wrote the children's classic The Wind in the Willows.  The movement was influenced by the ideas of Charles Darwin (1809–82) (On Origin of Species) (1859), Ernst Mach (1838–1916), Henri Bergson (1859–1941), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900), James G. Frazer (1854–1941), Karl Marx (1818–83) (Das Kapital, 1867), and the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), among others. Scotland has in the late 20th century produced several important novelists, including James Kelman, who like Samuel Beckett can create humour out of the most grim situations. But he made his debut as an original playwright with The Dock Brief, starring Michael Hordern as a hapless barrister, first broadcast in 1957 on BBC Radio's Third Programme, later televised with the same cast, and subsequently presented in a double bill with What Shall We Tell Caroline? Middlemarch won this BBC Culture poll by a landslide: 42% of the critics polled included it in their lists. Great list, Oliver. William Faulkner seems completely out of favour nowadays sadly. Smith, Stan (2004). Roald Dahl rose to prominence with his children's fantasy novels, such as James and the Giant Peach and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, often inspired by experiences from his childhood, which are notable for their often unexpected endings, and unsentimental, dark humour. Shaw's career began in the last decade of the 19th century, while Synge's plays belong to the first decade of the 20th century. The author of this article, Dr Oliver Tearle, is a literary critic and lecturer in English at Loughborough University. She specializes in 20th- and 21st-century American literature, especially the period since 1945. Eliot became a British citizen in 1927 but was born and educated in America. But while modernism was to become an important literary movement in the early decades of the new century, there were also many fine writers who, like Thomas Hardy, were not modernists. A French friend says that Steinbeck, Hemingway and Proust always feature in such lists in France. The same for Wide Sargasso. James, born in the US, lived in Europe from 1875, and became a British citizen in 1915. Excellent Women (Barbara Pym, 1952) 79. Though some have seen modernism ending by around 1939, with regard to English literature, "When (if) modernism petered out and postmodernism began has been contested almost as hotly as when the transition from Victorianism to modernism occurred". Written by the Igbo Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe and published in 1958 at a time when many African countries were gaining their independence from European countries, and the ‘winds of change’ were blowing through Africa (in Harold Macmillan’s memorable words), Things Fall Apart focuses on what life was like in Nigeria before the British arrived, and then what happened when they did, with disastrous consequences, in the late nineteenth century. one of the few writers who completed their greatest works after being awarded the Nobel Prize: these works include The Tower (1928) and The Winding Stair and Other Poems (1929).. “The… The Cambridge companion to the twentieth-century English novel / edited by Robert L. Caserio. Lessing soon became a dominant presence in the English literary scene, frequently publishing right through the century, and won the nobel prize for literature in 2007. Michael Frayn (born 1933) is among other playwrights noted for their use of language and ideas. , In the 1930s W. H. Auden and Christopher Isherwood co-authored verse dramas, of which The Ascent of F6 (1936) is the most notable, that owed much to Bertolt Brecht. emotional situation the protagonist of the novel, Paul Morel is caught in and his attempt to conceive an identity and a philosophy of his own. Among postmodern writers are the Americans Henry Miller, William S. Burroughs, Joseph Heller, Kurt Vonnegut, Hunter S. Thompson, Truman Capote and Thomas Pynchon.  Samuel Beckett (1906–89) published his first major work, the novel Murphy in 1938. A benchmark corpus of 100 English novels, covering the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. Edward Thomas (1878–1917) is sometimes treated as another Georgian poet. In the 1960s and 1970s Martian poetry aimed to break the grip of 'the familiar', by describing ordinary things in unfamiliar ways, as though, for example, through the eyes of a Martian. This novel often tops the list of ‘books people lie about having read’, with an estimated two-fifths of Brits pretending they’ve read Orwell’s classic dystopian vision in order to look smart. How about The Magus by John Fowles? ...Rise of the English Novel The dominant genre in world literature, the novel is actually a relatively young form of imaginative writing. The twentieth-century English novel encompasses a vast body of work, and one of the most important and most widely read genres of literature. Janice Galloway "Rereading Lanark by Alasdair Gray". PLAY. "Ulysses and the Age of Modernism". His best-known character is the priest-detective Father Brown, who appeared only in short stories, while The Man Who Was Thursday published in 1908 is arguably his best-known novel. And I am so surprised no mention of To Kill a Mockingbird. I have read them all, so this list has a “Been there, Done that” feel for me. 1.4. A noted writer in the spy novel genre was John le Carré, while in thriller writing, Ian Fleming created the character James Bond 007 in January 1952, while on holiday at his Jamaican estate, Goldeneye. Types of Novel. She is a founder of Post•45, a collective of leading scholars in the field; Post•45 is developing a web journal based at Yale. The novel focuses on life in India just prior to, and after, the partition of the country in 1947 (hence the title: the protagonist, Saleem Sinai, discovers that all children born in India an hour after midnight on 15 August 1947, the day of the partition, are imbued with special powers). The End of the Affair by Graham Greene (1951) Her 1929 essay A Room of One's Own contains her famous dictum "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction". Web. Among these were coal miner Jack Jones, James Hanley, whose father was a stoker and who also went to sea as a young man, and coal miners Lewis Jones from South Wales and Harold Heslop from County Durham. It’s an old-school melodrama, but one of the most popular books of 1899 is a well-done one. Thirty-two of these are excluded from this composite version for various reasons (published prior to the 20th century, not novels, not fictional works, not originally written in English), but this still leaves an impressive 221 works to represent the best of the century. J. K. Rowling author of the highly successful Harry Potter series and Philip Pullman famous for his His Dark Materials trilogy are other significant authors of fantasy novels for younger readers. Americans, like poets T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound and novelist William Faulkner, were other important modernists. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Orczy gained a following of readers in Britain and throughout the world. During this time we start to see women fighting for their rights and speaking their minds We also have World With the bravura storytelling and pungent authenticity of detail she brought to her acclaimed Lymond Chronicles, Dorothy Dunnett, grand dame of the historical novel, presents The House of Niccolò series. :). Early in the twentieth century the novel was impacted by the works of some prominent nineteenth- century writers such as the Russians Feodor Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstory, and the French novelists Honoré de Balzac, Emile Zola, Guy de Maupassant, and Gustave Flaubert. This was made into a film in 1981 with a screenplay by Harold Pinter. Other South African writers in English are novelist J.M. 20th-Century Novels (1900-1940) Sort by Publish Date Author A-Z Author Z-A. , An important cultural movement in the British theatre which developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s was Kitchen sink realism (or "kitchen sink drama"), a term coined to describe art (the term itself derives from an expressionist painting by John Bratby), novels, film and television plays.  His works include The Remains of the Day 1989, Never Let Me Go 2005. Alex. "English literature." English ﬁction–20th century–History and criticism. p. cm. This is not only one of the greatest twentieth-century novels but one of the greatest novels of all time, and often appears near the top of any list of great novels. Rushdie achieved fame with Midnight's Children 1981, which was awarded both the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and Booker prize, and was named Booker of Bookers in 1993. An informal literary discussion group associated with the English faculty at the University of Oxford, were the "Inklings". Classics: Pre-20th Century English Novels.  Graham Greene was a convert to Catholicism and his novels explore the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world. The term ‘Orwellian’, now in common use, shows the influence of this novel, which was initially going to be called The Last Man in Europe. Recommended edition: Invisible Man (Penguin Modern Classics). I’m happy that ”To the Lighthouse” by Virginia Woolf was used as the cover! Among Canadian writers who have achieved an international reputation, are novelist and poet Margaret Atwood, poet, songwriter and novelist Leonard Cohen, short story writer Alice Munro, and more recently poet Anne Carson. One of the most influential novels of the immediate post-war period was William Cooper's naturalistic Scenes from Provincial Life, a conscious rejection of the modernist tradition. From 1940 into the 21st century, American playwrights, poets and novelists have continued to be internationally prominent. O'Neill's experiments with theatrical form and his use of both Naturalist and Expressionist techniques had a major influence on American dramatists. ), it remains a classic work of twentieth-century fiction. The board of review consisted of Daniel J. Boorstin, A. S. Byatt, Christopher Cerf, Shelby Foote, Vartan Gregorian, Edmund Morris, John Richardson, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., William Styron and Gore Vidal. Notable for an ability to combine serious literary acclaim with broad popularity, his novels include Brighton Rock (1938), The Power and the Glory (1940), The Heart of the Matter (1948), A Burnt-Out Case (1961), and The Human Factor (1978). and would definitely include Tolkien and Atwood. Although it has a reputation as a ‘difficult’ work – and Joyce’s 1922 novel is around 800 pages representing the pinnacle of literary modernism in the novel form – Ulysses is actually a very democratic book, taking in all classes and stripes of Irish culture. Fleming chronicled Bond's adventures in twelve novels, including Casino Royale (1953), Live and Let Die (1954), Dr. No (1958), Goldfinger (1959), Thunderball (1961), and nine short story works. Irish writers were especially important in the twentieth-century, including James Joyce and later Samuel Beckett, both central figures in the Modernist movement. However, not all those writing in these years were modernists; among the writers outside the movement were American novelists Theodore Dreiser, Dos Passos, Ernest Hemingway, Scott Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby 1925), and John Steinbeck. They have penned some of the most classic tales of romance that have kindled a feeling of love in the most brazen of hearts, created characters whose fame extends beyond the novel and tides, conceived plots that have captivated the minds and sense of many for decades, and written lines that have been the most quoted and the most recognized ones – British literary connoisseurs are not holding it back and giving British literature … Major Characteristics of the 19th Century English Novel 1. Many of his works, such as Hay Fever (1925), Private Lives (1930), Design for Living (1932), Present Laughter (1942) and Blithe Spirit (1941), have remained in the regular theatre repertoire. 20th Century English Novel. One of the shortest novels on this list, Wide Sargasso Sea (1966) is, famously, a prequel to the novel Jane Eyre, which follows the early life of the ‘madwoman in the attic’, Bertha Mason, from Charlotte Brontë’s novel. Scottish writer Muriel Spark pushed the boundaries of realism in her novels. Shipping and handling.  Important literary precursors of modernism, were: Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–81) (Crime and Punishment (1866), The Brothers Karamazov (1880); Walt Whitman (1819–92) (Leaves of Grass) (1855–91); Charles Baudelaire (1821–67) (Les Fleurs du mal), Rimbaud (1854–91) (Illuminations, 1874); August Strindberg (1849–1912), especially his later plays..  Caribbean writer Jean Rhys's writing career began as early as 1928, though her most famous work, Wide Sargasso Sea, was not published until 1966. Furthermore, Basil Bunting, born in 1901, published little until Briggflatts in 1965 and Samuel Bec… Margaret Drabble (born 1939) is a novelist, biographer and critic, who published from the 1960s into the 21st century. Amy Hungerford is Professor of English at Yale. Her first, The Comforters (1957) concerns a woman who becomes aware that she is a character in a novel; The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961), at times takes the reader briefly into the distant future, to see the various fates that befall its characters. The literature of the 17thcentury flourished under the patronage of the upper classes. A tremendous intellectual as well as a brilliant writer. The contemporary Australian novelist Peter Carey (born 1943) is one of only four writers to have won the Booker Prize twice—the others being J. G. Farrell, J. M. Coetzee and Hilary Mantel.. 14 But for the most part serious critical attention to detective fiction in general and 19th-century detective stories in particular was a 20th-century phenomenon. Similarly William Faulkner continued to publish until the 1950s and was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1949. If you don’t believe us, here’s a sneak peek. Featured here are classic British novels from the likes of Dickens, Austen, Defoe, and many more. The premier of the London production was enthusiastically received by the audience, running 122 performances and enjoying numerous revivals. The major literary movements in the twentieth century are Modernism (circa 1900-1940) and Postmodernism (circa 1960-1990). Probably not my choice, though I have read several of those. Although we chose Mrs Dalloway as Woolf’s best novel in our pick of the greatest 1920s novels, really there’s little to choose between that novel (set on just one day, like Ulysses) and this 1927 novel, which focuses on the Ramsay family during their visits to the Isle of Skye just before, during, and after the First World War. Ernest Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises & Other Writings 1918-1926 LOA N°334. 20th TWENTIETH CENTURY FICTION Discusses about 20th century fiction and its influence on society, political and intellectual environment. Yeats was one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature. H.G. Recommended edition: Midnight’s Children (Vintage Classics). In poetry Hart Crane published The Bridge in 1930 and E. E. Cummings and Wallace Stevens were publishing from the 1920s until the 1950s. V. S. Naipaul (born 1932), born in Trinidad, was another immigrant, who wrote among other things A House for Mr Biswas (1961) and A Bend in the River (1979). The novel with which the Nobel prize-winning author established her name is a kaleidoscopic evocation of the African-American experience in the 20th century. In addition to W. B. Yeats other important early modernist poets were the American poets T. S. Eliot (1888–1965) and Ezra Pound (1885–1972). Gertrude Stein (1874–1946), an American expatriate living in Paris, famous for her line "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose," was also an important literary force during this time period. 26.25 i. Booth Tarkington: Novels & … Thirty-two of these are excluded from this composite version for various reasons (published prior to the 20th century, not novels, not fictional works, not originally written in English), but this still leaves an impressive 221 works to represent the best of the century. Angela Carter (1940–92) was a novelist and journalist, known for her feminist, magical realism, and picaresque works. On Bookshelf I write about the letter that he mailed to our English class while I was in boarding school. During early 1998, the Modern Library polled its editorial board to find their opinions of the best 100 novels. Ulysses has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement". Another prominent writer in this genre, Douglas Adams, is particularly associated with the comic science fiction work, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, which began life as a radio series in 1978. Audio Books & Poetry Community Audio Computers, Technology and Science Music, Arts & Culture News & Public Affairs Non-English Audio Spirituality & Religion. The term angry young men was often applied[by whom?] Agatha Christie (1890–1976) was a crime writer of novels, short stories and plays, who is best remembered for her 80 detective novels as well as her successful plays for the West End theatre. Two significant contemporary Irish novelists are John Banville (born 1945) and Colm Tóibín (born 1955). Novel: It depends more on the display of character and motive. Introduction 4. Kipling's reputation declined during his lifetime, but more recently postcolonial studies has "rekindled an intense interest in his work, viewing it as both symptomatic and critical of imperialist attitudes". 6 ] yeats is generally considered [ by whom? m pretty sure i shouldn ’ t it! Reckless daredevil '' over the next 35 years British citizen in 1927 but was born educated... 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